The Lancet: 9 Million Premature Deaths from Pollution

by John Brian Shannon | Reposted from JBSNews.com

A startling report from The Lancet says that over 9 million people die annually from pollution. It further suggests that with more study this initial number may, in fact, be much higher. The Lancet researchers also say it costs the global economy over $5 trillion annually.

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The Lancet report: Pollution and Health Infographic
The Lancet Infographic

To read the report, download it as a PDF file, or to find other relevant information about the report, please click here.


Quotes

“Air Pollution Kills 9 Million, Costs $5 Trillion Per Year”EcoWatch

“The world’s ‘Number One killer’ a new study says, causing more premature deaths than war, terrorism, natural disasters, cigarettes and disease.” Voice of America

“In 2015, nearly one in six deaths, an estimated nine million worldwide, was related to pollution in some form — air, water, soil, chemical or occupational pollution, according to a new report published Thursday in The Lancet.” CNN

“Landmark study finds toxic air, water, soils and workplaces kill at least 9m people and cost trillions of dollars every year. The deaths attributed to pollution are triple those from Aids, malaria and tuberculosis combined.”The Guardian

Genon K. Jensen, the executive director of the Health and Environment Alliance (HEAL), welcomed the report and said it “shows we have the necessary data to address this problem and more importantly, that we can win”.Euractive

“My colleagues and I knew that pollution killed a lot of people. But we certainly did not have any idea of the total magnitude.” Philip Landrigan, dean of global health at the Mount Sinai School of Medicine and co-chair of the commission — National Post

“Pollution is linked to about 9 million deaths each year — three times as many deaths as AIDS, tuberculosis, and malaria combined — according to a new large report published in The Lancet. It says pollution played a role in one in six of all deaths across the globe in 2015.”CBS News

World Health Organization Air Pollution Report | One in Eight deaths from Air Pollution

by John Brian Shannon.

Seven million premature air pollution related deaths — World Health Organization Air Pollution Report

A March 25 report from the World Health Organization (WHO) says that 7 million premature deaths were caused by air pollution in 2012. That’s one of every eight deaths worldwide. “This finding more than doubles previous estimates and confirms that air pollution is now the world’s largest single environmental health risk.” — WHO report

Air pollution is contamination of the indoor or outdoor environment by any chemical, physical or biological agent that modifies the natural characteristics of the atmosphere. Household combustion devices, motor vehicles, industrial facilities and forest fires are common sources of air pollution. Pollutants of major public health concern include particulate matter, carbon monoxide, ozone, nitrogen dioxide and sulfur dioxide. Outdoor and indoor air pollution cause respiratory and other diseases, which can be fatal. — World Health Organization

The report clearly delineates between indoor and outdoor air pollution. A large percentage of deaths occur as wood, coal, or kerosene are used as fuel for indoor stoves in the developing world. These rudimentary cooking and heating stoves emit relatively large quantities of soot, particulates and toxic gases. Not to mention comparatively large quantities of CO2 — and while carbon dioxide itself is not a toxic gas it can displace oxygen in enclosed areas within a house for example, causing death by asphyxiation.

Women and Children at highest risk

Women and children tend to suffer most and levels are often significantly higher than outdoor pollution measurements. Indoor air pollution is responsible for 2 million deaths per year, according to the report.

Air pollution is a major environment-related health threat to children and a risk factor for both acute and chronic respiratory disease. While second-hand tobacco smoke and certain outdoor pollutants are known risk factors for respiratory infections, indoor air pollution from solid fuels is one of the major contributors to the global burden of disease. In poorly ventilated dwellings, indoor smoke can be 100 times higher than acceptable levels for small particles. Exposure is particularly high among women and young children, who spend the most time near the domestic hearth.

“Cleaning up the air we breathe prevents noncommunicable diseases as well as reduces disease risks among women and vulnerable groups, including children and the elderly. Poor women and children pay a heavy price from indoor air pollution since they spend more time at home breathing in smoke and soot from leaky coal and wood cook stoves.” — Dr Flavia Bustreo, WHO Assistant Director-General Family, Women and Children’s Health

A solution to the millions of deaths in recent decades caused by indoor pollution is the replacement of inefficient wood-burning, coal-burning and kerosene stoves, with electric stoves. For that, 1.3 billion people living in remote regions unserviced by electrical grids in Africa, Asia, and parts of South America will need either standalone energy power plants in the form of Solar Home Systems (SHS) or microgrids to generate and deliver clean electricity for electric stoves and heaters.

World Health Organization Air Pollution report. Chart shows the causes and effects of airborne pollution. Image courtesy of WHO
World Health Organization Air Pollution report. Chart shows the causes and effects of airborne pollution. Image courtesy of WHO

Outdoor air pollution levels continue to increase

The growing outdoor air pollution problem is also a contributor to the millions of premature deaths from outdoor airborne emissions. Urban outdoor air pollution alone is estimated to cause 1.3 million deaths annually.

Outdoor air pollution is large and increasing a consequence of the inefficient combustion of fuels for transport, power generation and other human activities like home heating and cooking. Combustion processes produce a complex mixture of pollutants that comprises of both primary emissions, such as diesel soot particles and lead, and the products of atmospheric transformation, such as ozone and sulfate particles. — WHO

Transportation Sector must reduce emissions, now

To reduce the millions of premature deaths caused by outdoor emissions, doubling the automobile fleet miles per gallon, per country, would halve the amount of outdoor emissions emitted by the land transportation segment. Switching from diesel to algae biodiesel (which can emit up to 80% fewer toxic pollutants) can dramatically improve the air quality in cities. And both gasoline vehicles and diesel vehicles can be manufactured or converted to run on Compressed Natural Gas (CNG). New, CNG-burning Honda cars are available for sale in the U.S. and Japan, while many truck fleets in the U.S. and Europe are switching to CNG or CNG+diesel power in an effort to lower costs, extend engine life, and reduce emissions.

The global shipping segment also emits large amounts of CO2, toxic gases and particulates. Emissions from ships may be especially harmful to human health due to the high levels of toxic gases, soot, and particulate matter which are a byproduct of burning so-called ‘bunker fuel’. Biofuel development is underway to help mitigate the damage caused by the world’s shipping lines to the atmosphere. Commercial aviation adds a similar total amount of CO2 to the atmosphere, but soot and particulates are less concerning with aviation fuels as much cleaner fuels are used for aviation. Increasingly, commercial airlines and the U.S. military are switching to biofuel+conventional petroleum blended fuels. Boeing reported that it’s jets produced 80% lower emissions when blended biofuels were used in test flights.

Electric Vehicles emit zero emissions

Cars like the Nissan LEAF and the Tesla Model S are stunning the world with their sales and performance — and their zero emissions for the life of the car. In North America and Europe, Tesla provides free charging for the life of the car via a growing network of charging stations which are often solar powered. Which means zero ‘fuel’ cost for the life of the car, if the owner chooses to recharge at one of the free Tesla ‘SuperCharger’ charging locations. Both the LEAF and the Tesla Model S boast a >95% recyclability rate.

The Nissan LEAF has sold over 100,000 units since it’s introduction, while the Model S is limited to only 30,000 per year (for now) due to a lack of manufacturing capacity. The latest Tesla vehicle, the Tesla Model X has a growing ‘waiting list’ of 12,000 people, and each one of them have paid a minimum deposit of $5,000. as far back as 2013 and are prepared to wait until 2015 if necessary, for their new Tesla electric vehicle.

It will get worse, before it gets better

For now, the annual death toll due to airborne emissions will continue to rise. By 2017, the yearly premature death toll will become a staggering number, much worse than 2012’s one-in-eight and will be a set of statistics difficult for many to comprehend.

Our health is in our hands

Many of us have the opportunity to become part of a better future by the choices we make now. Gas-guzzler, or economy car? Burning fossil fuels indoors, or switching to electric heaters and electric stoves? Burning plastic rubbish, or taking it and other recyclables to the recycling station? The choice is ours!

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A list of specific diseases caused by indoor and outdoor air emissions from the report:

Outdoor air pollution-caused deaths – breakdown by disease:

  • 40% — ischaemic heart disease;
  • 40% — stroke;
  • 11% — chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD);
  • 6% —- lung cancer; and
  • 3% —- acute lower respiratory infections in children.

Indoor air pollution-caused deaths – breakdown by disease:

  • 34% — stroke;
  • 26% — ischaemic heart disease;
  • 22% — COPD;
  • 12% — acute lower respiratory infections in children; and
  • 6% —- lung cancer.

Related links provided by the World Health Organization

China Opens A Window of Opportunity 2014-2020

by John Brian Shannon.

Three Decades of GDP Growth

After three full decades of impressive GDP numbers, China’s strong growth looks set to continue until the end of the decade.

Never in history has any country accomplished such staggering GDP growth numbers, modernized its infrastructure, oriented its political structures to accept a minimal degree of capitalism, and carry the demands of 1.35 billion people.

Let’s take a look at China’s 1979-2013 GDP numbers.

China GDP growth 1979-2013. Image courtesy of the IMF.

China is now enjoying stable growth rates. In short, as China’s economy has matured, it has successfully transitioned from a Frontier economy to an Emerging economy — and with plenty of momentum in hand, has settled-in to the long-term task of building a Developed economy.

For those willing to engage with China there is the potential for substantial reward, and as in any emerging economy, an element of risk is associated with investing there. In the case of investment or corporate relocation to China, responsible leaders and individual investors alike, are wise to seek the guidance from experienced professionals as they navigate several cultures and languages and the various levels and departments of a (still) communist government.

Focus on Planning

Fortunately, statist economies like China’s are centrally-planned in five year cycles, and for the most part these five year plans are released, translated, and then published by the media.

For one example of China’s long-range planning, in this case regarding China’s aggressive energy, renewable energy and conservation policies, please see: CHINA – Atmospheric Pollution Prevention Action Plan – State Council on the issuance of air pollution control action plan notification – Guo Fa 2013, No.37 [English Translation]

For a summary of that official document, please see: China’s new Atmospheric Pollution Prevention Action Plan

Addressing the Source

One of China’s most pressing problems is the quality of life for her citizens, the absence of which can affect overall citizen satisfaction and even worker productivity.

The poor air quality in China, which reportedly leads to 410,000 premature worker deaths per year, has been addressed with a huge push towards renewable energy. The Common Language Project (clpmag.org) provides a telling snapshot:

“China faces a number of serious environmental issues caused by overpopulation and rapid industrial growth.

Water pollution and a resulting shortage of drinking water is one such issue, as is air pollution caused by an over-reliance on coal as fuel.

It has been estimated that 410,000 Chinese die as a result of pollution each year.

Deforestation and desertification are also issues and an estimated one-fifth of agricultural land since 1949 has been lost to soil erosion and economic development. The country is also host to the trade of endangered species. The country’s rivers constitute the largest potential source of hydropower in the world.

Since 2007, China has stepped up government efforts to work toward environmental sustainability by holding local officials to national standards, publishing national climate change policies and establishing groups on climate change.” — clpmag.org

Measurable Results

To say China’s leadership has posted an aggressive response to air pollution, water pollution, soil contamination and the follow-on effects on citizen health and the economic costs of widespread pollution is a verifiable understatement.

In only a few years, China has surpassed wind and solar PV leaders Germany and the U.S. in the production and installation of wind turbines and solar panels and increased energy efficiency.

Announced in July of 2013, China’s National Energy Administration told the media that they expected to install 10 GW of solar by year end of 2013, another 10 GW of solar to be installed in year 2014, and yet another 10 GW of solar to be installed in year 2015.

While many nations were installing mere MegaWatts (MW) of solar or wind power in an effort to ‘look green’ — China’s energy officials said that although they had planned to install 10 GW of solar power in 2013, China may have surpassed that target by a full 4 GigaWatts for a grand total of 14 GW of solar installed in year 2013!

It was later announced that 12 GW would be installed in year 2014, and it has been reset once more to 14 GW of solar PV power to be installed in year 2014.

The latest pollution reduction measures announced in China now point to increased spending on energy efficiency and a commitment to the installation of 14 GW of solar panels in 2013 (already done), another 14 GW in year 2014 (in progress) and yet another 14 GW for 2015.

Now that’s an active pollution management file.

Energy news is never boring in China — so stay tuned!